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选择复合肥的窍门
发布时间:2014-10-13 15:49:21  查看次数:1701  字体大小【
    复合肥具有养分含量高、储藏和运输费用少、施用方便等优点,因此在农业生产实践中深受农友的喜欢和爱戴。特别是在广东各地,复合肥的用量大,品种繁多,扩大了农友选用的机会,但是对广大农友而言也正因为复合(混)肥品种太多而造成了如何选好肥和用好肥的烦恼。其次在众多的复合(混)肥中,也难免有伪劣产品。为了帮助农友辨认和选用高质量的复合肥或复混肥,下面介绍一些选用复合肥的知识。

    选择复合肥的窍门:复合肥是特指包含氮磷钾中任何两种或同时包含氮磷钾的肥料。复合肥一般是通过先进的工艺和技术生产的化成肥料。市场上许多表面光滑、靓丽的复合肥,其实是复混肥。复混肥实际上是把氮肥、磷肥、钾肥粉碎后再造粒的肥料。复合肥的肥效当然比复混肥好。
施用复合(混)肥的窍门:

    1、与有机肥配合施用  在果园,每年每棵树在施用3~5斤复合(混)肥的同时,每棵树最好结合施用2~3斤有机质含量高的有机肥。有机质含量高的有机肥指圈粪、堆肥或沤肥。
    2、作基肥或种肥为主  不论是二元还是三元复合肥一般作基肥或种肥,特别是对生育期短的蔬菜作基肥效果更好。这是因为复合肥中同时含有氮、磷、钾养分,而作物发根阶段对磷、钾有特殊的要求。
    3、以不同氮磷钾配比的复合肥作不同生育期的追肥  对于果树等生长期长的作物,在不同的生育期,可以选用氮磷钾配比不同的复合肥(见果树施肥篇)。适合于果树的复合肥应该是高氮复合肥(如撒可富25-5-10腐殖酸复合肥、20-10-10复合肥或其他进口高氮复合肥)、高钾复合肥(如撒可富10-6-24腐殖酸、16-5-19腐殖酸复合肥或其他进口高钾复合肥)和高磷钾复合肥(如星王10-20-20复合肥)。
     4、深施覆土  肥料表施时复合肥中的氮易于挥发损失或被雨水冲洗流失,复合肥中的钾也易被雨水冲洗流失。复合肥中的磷易被土壤固定而降低肥效。所以改地表撒施为土壤施肥,就可以把肥料尽量集中在根系最多的土壤中,保障作物吸的多、用的多,而损失的少。在用肥量少时,集中施的效果更好。
    5、与单质肥料配合施用  除了大型专业化复合肥企业能够根据作物的需肥特点、土壤的供肥特性和肥料的性质制造出系列专用复合肥外,市场上许多中小企业生产的复混肥很难满足农友的特定作物和地区。所以在选购肥料时,首先要辨清肥料袋上的标识,确认肥料中氮磷钾的比例和含量;
其次,在现有的商品中尽量找适合自己的氮磷钾配比的复合肥(一般大的复合肥企业对自己的产品有专门介绍);
   如果没有完全适合的复合肥,那么选择一种比较接近的复合肥,然后再用氮肥、磷肥或钾肥调整氮磷钾的配比。

 
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