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氨化造粒复合肥工艺与喷浆造粒复合肥区别
发布时间:2011-10-8 10:21:57  查看次数:2791  字体大小【
 

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氨化造粒复合肥工艺与喷浆造粒复合肥区别

 

氨化造粒复合肥是采用氨化、二次脱氯造粒生产工艺,原理是将氯化钾与硫酸加入反应槽加热并在一定条件下反应,逸出的HCL气体经水吸收后可制得一定浓度的盐酸,生成的硫酸氢钾与稀磷酸混合后形成混酸。将该混酸与合成氨按比例在管式反应器反应,生成复肥料浆直接喷入转鼓造粒机中生成氮、磷、钾一定比例的硫基复合肥。目前,国内生产的的S---NPK复合肥主要有两种生产工艺;即氨化造粒与喷浆造粒,这两种生产工艺所产的复合肥有较大差异,主要有以下几个方面:

1、 产品优势:氨化所生产的复合肥的氮含量高可做到14%以上,水溶磷高可达95%以上,而喷浆造粒的复合肥的氮含量低,只能做到12%左右,水溶磷低,约80%,肥效远不如氨化所生产的产品。

2、生产工艺:氨化生产的工艺是采用的管式反应器,其反应全部在管式反应器内,反应的中和度可达1.5以上,反应停留的时间短,只有不到10秒的时间,所以它的产品氮含量高,反应时间短,来不及生成磷酸盐的沉淀,没有磷的退化现象,所以水溶磷高。 喷浆造粒的反应是用传统的槽式中和,反应停留的时间长,多达30分钟以上,中和度低,只能做到1.1左右,所以它的产品氮含量低,反应停留时间长,磷酸中的磷酸盐沉淀,造成磷的退化,所以水溶磷含量低。

3、技术含量:喷浆造粒的生产工艺较成熟,生产操作稳定,目前生产的企业较多;转鼓氨化造粒由于其操作条件范围较小,操作较难控制,生产正常的厂家不多,目前我国只有不到10家的企业在使用这种工艺,而真正采用全料浆形式的只有8、9家。

 

 

四季度国际磷钾市场依然向好

 

    尽管一些欧美国家经历着债务负担和几近萧条的宏观经济,但钾肥和磷肥市场依然会在第四季度呈现强势走好的情形。今年,国际大规模化肥生产商对钾肥和磷肥的报价一直在稳步上升,因此,到目前为止,许多生产商盈利可观,特别是在与全球主要需求市场——印度、中国和巴西相继签订了供应合同后,国际大规模化肥生产商三季度盈利仍在增加。

  两个月前,印度和加拿大钾肥销售公司Canpotex结束了长达半年多的价格拉锯战。最终,谈判以印度同意高价购买钾肥而告终。尽管印度之前扬言要采取“钾肥假期”的策略,即暂停钾肥进口,但国内需求旺盛决定了印度不得不在8月接受2011年第四季度平均500美元/吨的氯化钾进口价格。而2012年第一季度价格还将在此基础上提高30美元/吨。此外,9月上旬,美国磷肥公司(PhosChem)、加拿大钾肥公司(Potash Corp)以及美盛公司(Mosaic)的磷肥销售部将之后的6个月内磷肥销售价格提高了65美元/吨。

  今年全球化肥市场受粮食市场支撑,粮食库存量低、价格高为农民增产带来动力,并通过增施化肥来提高产量。现在欧美地区钾肥销售价格为520-550美元/吨,根据现在已经签订的合同,第四季度价格还将提高30-50美元/吨。而2011年第四季度磷肥价格更是高达680美元/吨到站价。

  磷肥和钾肥现货价格处在高位主要源于一些基本因素。首先,磷肥和钾肥库存都达到往年同期较低水平,而农民需求依然旺盛,现货市场货源较近。前期,有化肥市场分析师曾提醒,磷肥库存紧张,将导致现货市场对农民供应不足。加拿大钾肥销售公司Canpotex和俄罗斯钾肥销售公司BPC均表示,现货市场已经开始订购4季度钾肥,甚至有下游开始为明年春季备肥。

  据悉,2011年全球钾肥海运量将达到5800万吨,达到2007年最高水平。钾肥需求迅速提高至2011年钾肥价格不断攀升的主要原因。低库存量也支撑着磷肥和钾肥价格上涨。因此,第四季度牛市势头仍不会改变。虽然全球经济低迷,但影响农业的可能性不大。

  现在全球粮食库存量非常低,因此,国际生产商和贸易商应该为第四季度现货市场做准备。农产品市场将面临的最大不定因素是天气问题,但如果遭遇恶劣天气,农产品价格还会上涨,且更需要磷肥和钾肥来保证增产。可见,第四季度磷肥和钾肥市场价格走势依然可观。

 
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